Powdered sugar contains nano particles of titanium dioxide, a substance which is also used in paints. When the powder was sugar coated with organic dyes such as passionfruit tea then it functions as a light absorber layer of solar photovoltaic devices.
In the solar cell system with dyeing, colored organic material such as tea can absorb some of you seen the light and converts the energy into electron carrier material such as white TiO2, who can not absorb their own.
Once the electron has been raised, they need to go somewhere. Identical with the sandwich, the TiO2 is between clean electrodes and electrodes made from graphite-made by rubbing pencil on the glass. As a final touch add a few who gained from the electrolyte solution iodine solution that is usually used for water purification.
Sensitive solar cell of the system, this immersion can be cheaper and more durable than traditional photovoltaic, but the efficiency is lower.
How to make a simple solar cell is as follows:
* Method I
Step one is to use a donut sprinkled with powdered sugar and passionfruit white tea:
1. Pour out powdered sugar donuts and who clung to collect
2. TSB powder Mix with hot water, stirring constantly
3. Strain the solution of TSB with fine filters can be found who, paper coffee filters can also be used.
4. Fabrics TiO2 is insoluble in water.
5th. What we need is long-TiO2 and polymer chain
6. Enter the residue / precipitate that remains solid on the filter paper into the hot oven (500 degrees Celsius)
7. Remove the TiO2 powder and add alcohol
8. Pour the white layer of TiO2 on glass berpenghantar solution. This glass had previously been coated with a transparent layer of barium penghantar (SnO2), as well as TiO2 films.
9. Allow to dry and do it until 10 layers.
10. What we need next is a natural fruit juice such as: raspberry, blackberry, pomegranate seed / red pomegranate, black currant, leaves Canada, Tea Hibiscus Tea Passion red or custom-made from hibiscus plants containing anthrocyanin. Chains made of organic carbon and hydrogen. Or is best to use the Starbucks Passion Tea.
11. Nano TiO2 particles are needed to be made sensitive by using Starbucks Passion Tea.
12. Or if not, lumatkan TSB one of the organic material on top and mix with a spoonful of water.
13. Soak for 5 minutes TSB film in this solution to obtain the former cliff-red stain-purple. When both sides of the film does not imprint evenly, then return to soak in a solution of TSB juice for more than five minutes.
14. When using Starbucks Passion Tea soak for several hours so that the TiO2 film changed color from white to purple
15. The dark means to absorb light.
16. Wash the film with ethanol and gently dried with use of tissues.
17. Photoelectrochemical solar cell installation
18. Put a pencil on film, the clean up is grayed out.
19. Provide iodine tablets for water purification and alcohol
20. Cut the usual film-shaped frame (you can of Scotch who isolation nodes) are center part holes and fit the size of the hole surface of TiO2 films that have been colored purple. Squirt liquid derived from the solution of iodine is usually used for water purification on the surface of TiO2.
21. Then cover with a layer of regular movie on it (like a sandwich) and clamp the ends with paper clips.
22. Measure both ends with a micro-amperes it will show the existence of a small electrical current that changes who follow the presence or absence of light sources.
1. Put layer Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) with natural dyes obtained from fruit juice, blackberries, raspberries, pomegranate seeds
red, red Hibiscus Tea, Starbucks Passionfruit Tea, etc..
2. Counter electrode coating:
Solar cells require positive and negative plates to serve. Called the positive electrode and counter electrode are assembled from a glass plate coated with SnO2 penghantar materials. Ohmmeter can be used to check where the conductive part, the sign is carved with a fingernail when this is the rough side. Non-conductive side marked with +. Use the tip of a pencil to scratch and create a thin layer of graphite (catalytic carbon) on the surface of the conductive plate.
3. Add electrolytes and assemble the final stages of solar cell
Serves as an electrolyte solution of iodine in the solar cell which is to complement the circuit and regenerates the coating. Place a plate that had been smeared on the table so that the film side at the top and drops one or two drops of iodine electrolyte to the dirty part of the film. Then place the counter electrode on the top of a dirty movie, so the conductive side of the counter electrode is at the top of the film. Dragged the glass plate so that the edge of the plate is visible. This will be the contact point for the positive and negative electrodes so that we can measure the solar cell and tried to TSB.
4. Use two clamps to hold the two electrodes together at the ends of the plate. The output voltage around 0.43 V and 1 mA/cm2 when the cell full of sunshine through the TiO2.
* Method II
By leveraging the power transistors (transistors jengkol) NPN type such as 2N3055. From the first transistor can generate voltage jengkol 0.5 to 0.6 VDC.
Open the casing cover jengkol transistors by sawing a prominent part (writing imaginable type and no code), then point the parts that have been open to the sun and measuring the voltage with a voltmeter to the position as shown below. The base is a negative pole and the feet with foot emitter dijumper colector who represents the positive pole. Currents produced are very small, but by connecting the three transistors in series will be obtained jengkol voltage to 1.8 V and can charge one battery type AAA/UM4.
* Method III
By using cuprous oxide instead of silicon. Oxida cuprous or copper oxide is one of the first material that can produce the photoelectric effect is the effect of light caused an electric current flowing in the material.
The materials used are as follows:
1. A sheet of thin copper plate with a size of approximately 15cm x 30cm
2. Two crocodile clips
3. Micro amperemeter sensitive who can read between 10 and 50 micro amperes.
4. Electric stove with a large power 1100 Watt
5th. Large plastic bottle or can also use two-liter bottle of mineral water which cut top. Glasses with a big mouth can also be used.
6. Table salt, it takes a few tablespoons of salt.
7. Water faucets
8. Sandpaper or wire brush
9. Scissors to cut thin sheets of copper
How to make are as follows:
1. Cut the copper plate to the size of the heating stove electric stove. Wash hands to remove the fat stains on his hands. Then wash the copper sheet TSB with soap to remove stains of oil or fat on its surface. Use sandpaper or wire brush to clean the surface completely flat so that the copper sulphide stains or corrosion can be lifted slightly.
2. Place a piece of copper that has been cleaned and dried in the oven heater and electric stove set of figures who in the highest.
3. At the time of the copper plate was hot, who will look beautiful oxidation patterns begin to form. Orange, purple and red began to cover the copper surface.
4. At the time of the copper plate from the heat, its color will change to blackish which is a layer of cupric oxide or copper oxide. But this is not the oxide we want, show the colors red, orange, pink and purple from copper oxide under layer.
5th. Next TSB color pattern will disappear along with heaters who began glowing red
6. When heating began glowing red, copper plates will be coated with black copper oxide. Allow heated for half an hour so that her black coating will be thicker. This is important in a thick layer will flake easily, while a thin layer of copper will remain stuck on.
7. After half hour warm-up, turn off the stove. Leave the hot copper plates on the stove cools slowly. If cooling too quickly, the black oxide will stay stuck to the copper.
8. At the copper cools, it will shrink. Black copper oxide also shrinks, but shrinkage in different ranges, making peeling black copper oxide.
9. The small Black peeling out of the copper with enough force to make those who fly a few inches. This means less cleaning effort around the stove, but it was fun to watch.
10. When the copper has cooled in accordance with room temperature (takes approximately 20 minutes), most of the black oxide will be lost. Rub gently with hands under running water would lift most small bits. Do not pick up all the black spots by hard scrubbing or bend this thin copper plate. This may damage the soft layer of red copper oxide that we need to make solar cells work.
11. The next installation is very simple and quick. Cut another piece of copper the same size as the first who. Bend both ends slowly, so it can fit into a plastic bottle without touching one another. Copper oxide layer who is facing upwards on the stove is usually a best side to face outward in the bottle because it is the finest and cleanest surface.
12. Connect the two alligator clips, one for the new copper plate and the other who to plate the copper oxides. Connect one end of the clean copper plate with the positive terminal of the meter. Connect one end of the copper oxide plate with the negative terminal of the meter.
13. Now mix a couple tablespoons of table salt into hot water. Stir in salt water until the salts dissolve. Then carefully pour the brine into the jar, being careful not to wet the tip of crocodile jaws. Salt water does not have to cover the plate, leave approximately 1 inch tall salt water from the surface plate so that we can move out TSB solar cell around without getting wet crocodile jaws.
Notice in the picture above that the meter reads the flow of electricity at 6 micro-amperes. This is a solar cell battery, although in the dark and usually shows few micro-amperes of electric current.
While the test showed the picture above the solar cell in a state of the sun. Notice that the meter has shown an electric current of about 33 micro amperes. Even sometimes the needle can indicate up to 50 micro-amperes, which makes the needle move fully to the right.
This solar cell can produce 50 micro-amperes with a voltage of 0.25 V, this means that can produce power equal to 12.5 micro watts.
12.5 mikrowatt is to cell size of 0.01 m2 or 1.25 milliwatt per m2.