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Solar Cells Panel

 

The main difference from the solar cell is essential for the production of solar cell. Materials solar cell that the most common cells are crystalline silicon. Crystalline materials can consist of a single crystal, mono or single-crystalline, and poly or multi-crystalline. In addition there are solar cells made from panels of thin layers of amorphous silicon. Tues Crystalline silicon has two types are almost similar, although the single crystalline cells more efficiently than poly-crystalline poly-crystalline as a bond between the cells. The advantages of amorphous silicon is affordable but not as efficient crystalline silicon solar cell.
Know Your Cell Solar Panel Performance

Total spending power (wattage) of solar cell is proportional to the voltage / operating voltage multiplied by the flow of current operations. Solar cell can generate currents of different voltages. This differs from the battery, which flows from a relatively constant voltage.

Output characteristics of solar cell can be seen from the performance curve, called the IV curve. Curse IV shows the relationship between current and voltage.



Solar Cell Panel IV-Curve
Picture above shows the typical I-V curve. Voltage (V) is the horizontal axis. Current (I) is the vertical axis. Most of the IV curve is given in the Standard Test Conditions (STC) 1000 watts per square meter of radiation (or called a sun peak / peak sun one hour) and 25 degrees Celsius / 77 degrees Fahrenheit temperature of solar cell panels. For information on the STC represents optimal conditions in a laboratory environment.

I-v curve consists of three important things:

1. Maximum Power Point (Vmp and Imp)
2. Open Circuit Voltage (VOC)
3. Short Circuit Current (ISC)
Maximum Power Point (Vmp & Imp)

In the IV curve, Maximum Power Point Vmp and Imp, is the operating point, with a maximum expenditure / output generated by solar cell panels during operational conditions. In other words, Vmp and Imp can be measured at the moment given the burden of the solar cell panels at 25 degrees Celsius and radiation of 1000 watts per square meter. In the curve above 17 volts is the voltage Vmp and Imp is 2.5 amperes. Number of watts at the maximum limit is determined by multiplying the Vmp and Imp, the maximum number of watts at STC is 43 watts.

Output decreases as the voltage decreases. Flow and power output of most solar cell module panel decreases as voltage / voltage rise exceeds the maximum power point.


Open Circuit Voltage (VOC)

Open Circuit Voltage, VOC, is the capacity of the maximum voltage that can be achieved when the absence of flow (current). At the I-V curve, VOC is 21 volts. Power at the time of VOC is 0 watts.
Voc solar cell panel can be measured in the field in various circumstances. When buying a module, it is highly recommended to test the voltage to determine whether they fit with the factory specification. When testing the voltage with a digital multimeter from the positive terminal to negative terminal. Open Circuit Voltage (VOC) can be measured in the morning and afternoon.
Short Circuit Current (ISC)

Short Circuit Current ISC, is at maximum output current from the solar cell panels that can be removed (output) under conditions with no resistance or short circuit. In the IV curve above shows the current estimate of 2.65 Amperes. Power on the ISC is 0 watts.

Short circuit current can be measured only when creating a direct connection of positive and negative terminals of the solar cell module panel.
Label Specifications Solar Cell Panel

All values found in the IV curves are used to create specific labels for each module solar cell panels. All models ditera under standard test conditions. Label Specifications can be found at the rear of the solar cell module panel:
Electrical ratings at 1000 Watt/m2
AM 1.5, Cell 25 degree Celsius Temperature
Max. Power: 43 W
VOC: 4.21 V
Vmp: 17.3 V
ISC: 2.65 A
Imp: 2.5 A
Factors Affecting Solar Cells Panel
Five major things that affect the performance / performance of the module solar cells:

1. Materials manufacturer solar cells panel
2. Load resistance
3. Sunlight intensity
4. Temperature / temperature of solar cells panel
5. Shadow / shading.
Resistance Expenses

Battery voltage is the operating voltage from solar cell module panel, when the battery is connected directly to the solar cell module panel. For example, most 12-volt battery, the voltage / battery voltage is usually between 11.5 to 15 Volts. To be able to charge batteries, solar cell panels should operate at a higher voltage than the voltage of the battery bank.

The highest efficiency is when the solar cell panels operate near the maximum power point. In the example above, the battery voltage should be close to the voltage Vmp. If the battery voltage falls below Vmp, or rises above Vmp, then its efficiency is reduced.

Sunlight Intensity
The greater the light intensity will produce a proportionately large currents. As the following figure, the level of sunlight decreases, the shape of the IV curve shows the same thing, but moving downward indicating decrease in flow and power. Voltage is not changed by a variety of light intensity.
The temperature of the solar cell panel

As the temperature increases above the solar cell panels standard normal temperature 25 degrees Celsius, the panel module solar cell efficiency and voltage efficiency will be reduced. The figure below illustrates that, like, the cell temperature rose above 25 degrees Celsius (the temperature of the solar cell module panel, rather than air temperature), IV curve shape remains the same, but shifted to the left in accordance with the temperature increase solar cell panels, resulting in voltage and power smaller. Heat in this case, is the electrical resistance to the flow of electrons.

For that airflow around the solar cell module panel is important to remove the heat that causes the temperature of high solar cell panels.


Shading / shade / shadow

Solar cell panel, which consists of several silicon in series to produce the desired power. One silicon resulted 0:46 Volt, to form a solar cell panel 12 Volt, 36 diserikan silicon, the result is 0:46 Volt x 36 = 16:56.

Shading is where one or more of solar cell silicon cell panels covered from sunlight. Shading will reduce spending power from solar cell panels. Several types of solar cell module panel is badly affected by shading than others. The table below shows the effects of extreme influence of shading on a single cell from a single crystalline solar cell module that does not have an internal bypass diodes. To overcome these solar cell panels installed bypass diodes, bypass diodes for current flows in one direction, preventing flow into the silicon shadow taxable.


It should be noted in the installation is for the solar cell panels are not blocked / shading.

 

* Data taken from the book Design and Installation Manual photovoltaics

Percentage of shadow on one cell Pesenttase of solar cell module loss
0% 0%
25% 55%
50% 50%
75% 66%
100% 75%
3 cells to the shadow

93

 
Independent Power Solar Cell

Generating electricity at home? It was made possible by the installation of solar cells, solar cells convert sunlight into electricity. Electricity is stored in batteries, battery switch on the lights.

In the use of solar cell to generate electricity at home, there are some things we need to consider because the characteristics of the solar cell:

* Solar cell requires sunlight. Place the solar cell at the position where not obstructed by objects throughout the morning until the afternoon.
* Solar Cell - solar cell produces direct current electricity, DC.
* For higher efficiency, use DC lamps such as LED lights.
* Installing a new cable for direct current, DC for the following devices such as: LED-based lighting (Light Emiting Diode), CCTV cameras, wifi (wireless fideliity), etc..

When we make a new home, it is advisable to use electricity and solar cell. Solar cell is used for partial illumination (in this case using direct current DC) and electricity to alternating current devices such as air conditioning: Air conditioning, Refrigerator, some lighting etc.

When the DC power stored in batteries to use the device turn on the AC: water pumps, refrigerators, etc. it is necessary that the inverter can convert DC power into AC. Customize your power needs required by solar cell, inverters, batteries.
LED lamps as lighting Houses

There is now using energy efficient lighting such as LED lighting, DC. Compare 3 Watt LED light the equivalent of 15 Watt AC Lighting.

The drawback is:
* Installing a new cable for the LED light.
* The cost of procurement of more expensive lights.

The advantage is:
* The use of small energy
* The reliability of the LED light 10 x usual standard lamp
* Use two core electrical cable.


AC  Lamp
LED Lamp
Voltage
220 VAC
12 VDC
Watt 15 Watt
3 Watt
Lifetime
6,000 hours
50,000 hours
Cost
+ Rp. 25,000 + Rp. 250,000

Solar Cell for AC Electric

If we wish to use the energy of solar cells for other home equipment, follow the example of the following calculation.

If we take the alternating current electric power at 2000W for 10 hours per day (20KWh/hari) then the required 24 panels of solar cells with the capacity of each 210WP and 30 @ 12V 100Ah battery. This is based on the calculation of solar energy from 7 am until 5 pm (10 hours) and the assumption of energy conversion at least 4 hours a day

.

Solar energy 
The amount of solar cell
Capacity of solar cell
Calculation
Result
4 hours
24 panel
210 Watt
4 x 24 x 210
20.160 Watt hour

Basis for calculating the number of batteries are 2 x 3 x electrical needs.

The existence of the multiplier 3 to anticipate when the rain / overcast continuously for three consecutive days. While the multiplication factor 2 due to battery must be no more than 50% loss of capacity if it wants long-lasting battery, especially for such a dry battery type gel and AGM. In other words labored to DOD (Depth of Discharge) did not exceed 50% because it is affecting life time of the battery itself.

The amount of battery 
Voltage 
Ampere 
Calculation
Result
100 
12 Volt
100 Ampere hour 
100 x 12 x 100 120.000 Watt hour

 

 
Solar Power Plant

Why use solar power / solar?

Indonesia system solar cells have the gift of sunlight. Almost in every corner of Indonesia, the sun shone all morning until the afternoon. Emitted by the sun's energy can be converted to electrical energy using photovoltaic panels (solar cell)

Solar power plants are environmentally friendly, and very promising. As one alternative to replace power plants use steam (with oil and coal).

The development of technology in making solar cell that is better than the level of efficiency, making long-lasting battery, making electronic devices that can use Direct Current, is very promising.

At present the use of solar cells is still considered expensive due to the absence of subsidies. The electricity we use today is actually subsidized electricity. Imagine exploitation / mining of petroleum, coal (which damage the environment), creating the steam power generation, power distribution, which are all built with high cost.

Excess use of solar power:
* Energy is renewable / inexhaustible
* Clean, friendly environment
* Age solar cell / solar cell length / long term investment
* Practical, does not require treatment
* Very suitable for tropical areas like Indonesia

Solar cell as an important component of solar power plants, getting electricity in the morning until late afternoon sun over there. Generally, we calculate the maximum sunlight converted into electricity throughout the day is 5 hours. Electricity in the morning - afternoon stored in batteries, so that electricity can be used at night, whereas without the sun.

Because solar power plants is dependent upon the sun, so good planning is essential. Planning consists of:

* The amount of power required in everyday use (Watt).
* How large is the resulting flow of solar cell (in Ampere hour), in this case, considering how many solar cell to be installed.
* How many units of batteries required for the desired capacity and consideration of the use without sunlight. (Ampere hour).

In value to the economy, solar power plants have a higher value, whereby electricity from the PT. PLN is not possible, or installation of gasoline or diesel electric generators. For example in remote areas: mining, plantation, fishery, a remote village, etc.. In terms of long-term, value to the economy is also high, because with good planning, solar power plants with solar cell has the endurance of 20-25 years. Batteries and several other components with durability 3-5 years.

Some components of solar power plants (how it works can be read at the Solar Power Installation):

* Solar cell
* Charge controller
* Battery
* Inverters

Conclusion of people use solar cells because:

* Want to contribute to the environment
* Do not want to depend on the PLN
* Remote area, electric power from solar cells is cheaper.