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Types of Solar Cell: Solar Cells Type

 

Type of solar cell


Solar cell to change the intensity of sunlight into electrical energy. Solar cell produces current used to charge the battery.

Solar cell consists of photovoltaic, which generate electricity from light intensity, the intensity of light decreases (cloudy, rainy, cloudy) the electric current generated will also decrease.

By adding a solar cell (expand) means adding solar power conversion. Generally a solar cell with a certain size provide specific results as well. For example the size of a cm xB cm electric generating DC (Direct Current) for x Watts per hour / hours.

 
Efficiency of Power Changes

Endurance

Cost Remarks
Usage
Mono
Very Good
Very Good Good
Use Purpose Area
Daily
Poly
Good
Very Good Very Good
Suitable for mass production in the future
Dailu
Amorphous 
Good Enough
Good Enough
Good
Works well in fluorescent lighting
Daily & commercial device (calculator)

Compound (GaAs)

Very Good
Very Good Good Enough
Weight and Fragile
Use in outer space

 

Types of solar cells:
Polycrystalline (Poly-crystalline)
Is the solar cell having a random crystalline structure. Compound type requires a larger surface area compared with other types monokristal to generate the same power, but can produce electricity at the time was cloudy.

Monokristal (Mono-crystalline)
Panel is the most efficient, producing widespread power of the most high unity. Have efficiencies up to 15%. The downside of this type of panel is not functioning properly in place which is less sun light (shaded), the efficiency would drop drastically in cloudy weather.

Amorphous
Amorphous silicon (a-Si) has been used as a photovoltaic solar cell material for calculators for some time. Although they are lower performance than traditional c-Si solar cells, this is not important in calculators, which use very low power. a-Si's ability to be easily deposited during construction more than makes up for any downsides.

More recently, improvements in a-Si construction techniques have made them more attractive for large-area solar cell use as well. Here their lower inherent efficiency is made up, at least partially, by their thinness - higher efficiencies can be reached by stacking several thin-film cells on top of each other, each one tuned to work well at a specific frequency of light. This approach is not applicable to c-Si cells, which are thick as a result of their construction technique and are therefore largely opaque, blocking light from reaching other layers in a stack.

The main advantage of a-Si in large scale production is not efficiency, but cost. a-Si cells use approximately 1% of the silicon needed for typical c-Si cells, and the cost of the silicon is by far the largest factor in cell cost. However, the higher costs of manufacture due to the multi-layer construction have, to date, make a-Si unattractive except in roles where their thinness or flexibility are an advantage.

 
Independent Power Solar Cell

Generating electricity at home? It was made possible by the installation of solar cells, solar cells convert sunlight into electricity. Electricity is stored in batteries, battery switch on the lights.

In the use of solar cell to generate electricity at home, there are some things we need to consider because the characteristics of the solar cell:

* Solar cell requires sunlight. Place the solar cell at the position where not obstructed by objects throughout the morning until the afternoon.
* Solar Cell - solar cell produces direct current electricity, DC.
* For higher efficiency, use DC lamps such as LED lights.
* Installing a new cable for direct current, DC for the following devices such as: LED-based lighting (Light Emiting Diode), CCTV cameras, wifi (wireless fideliity), etc..

When we make a new home, it is advisable to use electricity and solar cell. Solar cell is used for partial illumination (in this case using direct current DC) and electricity to alternating current devices such as air conditioning: Air conditioning, Refrigerator, some lighting etc.

When the DC power stored in batteries to use the device turn on the AC: water pumps, refrigerators, etc. it is necessary that the inverter can convert DC power into AC. Customize your power needs required by solar cell, inverters, batteries.
LED lamps as lighting Houses

There is now using energy efficient lighting such as LED lighting, DC. Compare 3 Watt LED light the equivalent of 15 Watt AC Lighting.

The drawback is:
* Installing a new cable for the LED light.
* The cost of procurement of more expensive lights.

The advantage is:
* The use of small energy
* The reliability of the LED light 10 x usual standard lamp
* Use two core electrical cable.


AC  Lamp
LED Lamp
Voltage
220 VAC
12 VDC
Watt 15 Watt
3 Watt
Lifetime
6,000 hours
50,000 hours
Cost
+ Rp. 25,000 + Rp. 250,000

Solar Cell for AC Electric

If we wish to use the energy of solar cells for other home equipment, follow the example of the following calculation.

If we take the alternating current electric power at 2000W for 10 hours per day (20KWh/hari) then the required 24 panels of solar cells with the capacity of each 210WP and 30 @ 12V 100Ah battery. This is based on the calculation of solar energy from 7 am until 5 pm (10 hours) and the assumption of energy conversion at least 4 hours a day

.

Solar energy 
The amount of solar cell
Capacity of solar cell
Calculation
Result
4 hours
24 panel
210 Watt
4 x 24 x 210
20.160 Watt hour

Basis for calculating the number of batteries are 2 x 3 x electrical needs.

The existence of the multiplier 3 to anticipate when the rain / overcast continuously for three consecutive days. While the multiplication factor 2 due to battery must be no more than 50% loss of capacity if it wants long-lasting battery, especially for such a dry battery type gel and AGM. In other words labored to DOD (Depth of Discharge) did not exceed 50% because it is affecting life time of the battery itself.

The amount of battery 
Voltage 
Ampere 
Calculation
Result
100 
12 Volt
100 Ampere hour 
100 x 12 x 100 120.000 Watt hour

 

Read more...
 
Solar Cells Panel

 

The main difference from the solar cell is essential for the production of solar cell. Materials solar cell that the most common cells are crystalline silicon. Crystalline materials can consist of a single crystal, mono or single-crystalline, and poly or multi-crystalline. In addition there are solar cells made from panels of thin layers of amorphous silicon. Tues Crystalline silicon has two types are almost similar, although the single crystalline cells more efficiently than poly-crystalline poly-crystalline as a bond between the cells. The advantages of amorphous silicon is affordable but not as efficient crystalline silicon solar cell.
Know Your Cell Solar Panel Performance

Total spending power (wattage) of solar cell is proportional to the voltage / operating voltage multiplied by the flow of current operations. Solar cell can generate currents of different voltages. This differs from the battery, which flows from a relatively constant voltage.

Output characteristics of solar cell can be seen from the performance curve, called the IV curve. Curse IV shows the relationship between current and voltage.



Solar Cell Panel IV-Curve
Picture above shows the typical I-V curve. Voltage (V) is the horizontal axis. Current (I) is the vertical axis. Most of the IV curve is given in the Standard Test Conditions (STC) 1000 watts per square meter of radiation (or called a sun peak / peak sun one hour) and 25 degrees Celsius / 77 degrees Fahrenheit temperature of solar cell panels. For information on the STC represents optimal conditions in a laboratory environment.

I-v curve consists of three important things:

1. Maximum Power Point (Vmp and Imp)
2. Open Circuit Voltage (VOC)
3. Short Circuit Current (ISC)
Maximum Power Point (Vmp & Imp)

In the IV curve, Maximum Power Point Vmp and Imp, is the operating point, with a maximum expenditure / output generated by solar cell panels during operational conditions. In other words, Vmp and Imp can be measured at the moment given the burden of the solar cell panels at 25 degrees Celsius and radiation of 1000 watts per square meter. In the curve above 17 volts is the voltage Vmp and Imp is 2.5 amperes. Number of watts at the maximum limit is determined by multiplying the Vmp and Imp, the maximum number of watts at STC is 43 watts.

Output decreases as the voltage decreases. Flow and power output of most solar cell module panel decreases as voltage / voltage rise exceeds the maximum power point.


Open Circuit Voltage (VOC)

Open Circuit Voltage, VOC, is the capacity of the maximum voltage that can be achieved when the absence of flow (current). At the I-V curve, VOC is 21 volts. Power at the time of VOC is 0 watts.
Voc solar cell panel can be measured in the field in various circumstances. When buying a module, it is highly recommended to test the voltage to determine whether they fit with the factory specification. When testing the voltage with a digital multimeter from the positive terminal to negative terminal. Open Circuit Voltage (VOC) can be measured in the morning and afternoon.
Short Circuit Current (ISC)

Short Circuit Current ISC, is at maximum output current from the solar cell panels that can be removed (output) under conditions with no resistance or short circuit. In the IV curve above shows the current estimate of 2.65 Amperes. Power on the ISC is 0 watts.

Short circuit current can be measured only when creating a direct connection of positive and negative terminals of the solar cell module panel.
Label Specifications Solar Cell Panel

All values found in the IV curves are used to create specific labels for each module solar cell panels. All models ditera under standard test conditions. Label Specifications can be found at the rear of the solar cell module panel:
Electrical ratings at 1000 Watt/m2
AM 1.5, Cell 25 degree Celsius Temperature
Max. Power: 43 W
VOC: 4.21 V
Vmp: 17.3 V
ISC: 2.65 A
Imp: 2.5 A
Factors Affecting Solar Cells Panel
Five major things that affect the performance / performance of the module solar cells:

1. Materials manufacturer solar cells panel
2. Load resistance
3. Sunlight intensity
4. Temperature / temperature of solar cells panel
5. Shadow / shading.
Resistance Expenses

Battery voltage is the operating voltage from solar cell module panel, when the battery is connected directly to the solar cell module panel. For example, most 12-volt battery, the voltage / battery voltage is usually between 11.5 to 15 Volts. To be able to charge batteries, solar cell panels should operate at a higher voltage than the voltage of the battery bank.

The highest efficiency is when the solar cell panels operate near the maximum power point. In the example above, the battery voltage should be close to the voltage Vmp. If the battery voltage falls below Vmp, or rises above Vmp, then its efficiency is reduced.

Sunlight Intensity
The greater the light intensity will produce a proportionately large currents. As the following figure, the level of sunlight decreases, the shape of the IV curve shows the same thing, but moving downward indicating decrease in flow and power. Voltage is not changed by a variety of light intensity.
The temperature of the solar cell panel

As the temperature increases above the solar cell panels standard normal temperature 25 degrees Celsius, the panel module solar cell efficiency and voltage efficiency will be reduced. The figure below illustrates that, like, the cell temperature rose above 25 degrees Celsius (the temperature of the solar cell module panel, rather than air temperature), IV curve shape remains the same, but shifted to the left in accordance with the temperature increase solar cell panels, resulting in voltage and power smaller. Heat in this case, is the electrical resistance to the flow of electrons.

For that airflow around the solar cell module panel is important to remove the heat that causes the temperature of high solar cell panels.


Shading / shade / shadow

Solar cell panel, which consists of several silicon in series to produce the desired power. One silicon resulted 0:46 Volt, to form a solar cell panel 12 Volt, 36 diserikan silicon, the result is 0:46 Volt x 36 = 16:56.

Shading is where one or more of solar cell silicon cell panels covered from sunlight. Shading will reduce spending power from solar cell panels. Several types of solar cell module panel is badly affected by shading than others. The table below shows the effects of extreme influence of shading on a single cell from a single crystalline solar cell module that does not have an internal bypass diodes. To overcome these solar cell panels installed bypass diodes, bypass diodes for current flows in one direction, preventing flow into the silicon shadow taxable.


It should be noted in the installation is for the solar cell panels are not blocked / shading.

 

* Data taken from the book Design and Installation Manual photovoltaics

Percentage of shadow on one cell Pesenttase of solar cell module loss
0% 0%
25% 55%
50% 50%
75% 66%
100% 75%
3 cells to the shadow

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